Acute microbiologically negative hypoxic interstitial pneumonia on HAART: Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome unmasking Pneumocystis jiroveci infection with an atypical presentation

J Med Life. 2012 Jun 12;5(2):189-91. Epub 2012 Jun 18.


Highly active antiretroviral therapy for AIDS sometimes engenders inflammatory manifestations resulting from an inappropriate and unbalanced immune-system restoration, called Immune Reconstitution inflammatory Syndrome, which, in turn, can unmask a subclinical infection/pathology. Despite our patient's evident syndrome, the atypical clinical, microbiologic and radiologic feature of Pneumocystis pneumonia made its diagnosis difficult.

Keywords: HAART; HIV; Pneumocystis jiroveci; immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS); unmasking.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia / diagnostic imaging
  • Hypoxia / etiology*
  • Hypoxia / microbiology
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / diagnostic imaging
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / etiology*
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / etiology*
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / microbiology
  • Pneumocystis carinii / physiology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / diagnostic imaging
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / etiology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / microbiology
  • Radiographic Image Enhancement
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed