Clinical predictors of in-hospital death and early surgery for infective endocarditis: results of CArdiac Disease REgistration (CADRE), a nation-wide survey in Japan

Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 10;167(6):2688-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.06.117. Epub 2012 Jul 16.


Background: The benefit of early surgery for IE is yet to be determined in non-Western countries. We conducted this study to evaluate the role of early surgery in infective endocarditis (IE) in Japan.

Methods: IE admissions in Japan were prospectively registered using a nation-wide WEB-based registration system (CArdiac Disease REgistration, CADRE). The impact of early surgery on in-hospital mortality was assessed in native valve endocarditis (NVE) and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Risk factors for in-hospital death were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. The propensity score for early surgery was calculated to adjust the impact of early surgery.

Results: From September 2006 to May 2009, 348 NVE and 81 PVE were registered. In NVE, early surgery was preferable in every quartile stratified with the propensity score and the summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.12 (0.05-0.31). The predictors of in-hospital death were Staphylococcus aureus infection (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.26-9.7), heart failure (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.43-18.7) and early surgery (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.03-0.2). In PVE, the predictors of in-hospital death were age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18), S. aureus infection (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.4-24.01) and heart failure (OR 7.44, 95% CI 1.81-30.67), whereas early surgery was not (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.12-2.16).

Conclusion: Early surgery for NVE is associated with improved survival in a wide range of clinical subgroups in Japan. In PVE a survival benefit of early surgery is not clear.

Keywords: Early surgery; Infective endocarditis; Nation-wide registration; Native valve endocarditis; Prosthetic valve endocarditis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Data Collection / trends*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / diagnosis
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / mortality*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / surgery*
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Staphylococcal Infections / diagnosis
  • Staphylococcal Infections / mortality*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / surgery*
  • Time Factors