Pacific Islander women represent a significant at-risk population for cervical cancer, yet little is known about the modifiable factors associated with routine Pap testing. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to report and discuss the known and unknown factors associated with cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California. This cross-sectional study explored the factors associated with receipt of regular Pap testing among Chamorro women age 18 years and older in California. A self-administered survey was designed and distributed to women in order to understand their knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding routine receipt of Pap tests. Only about two-thirds of women had received a Pap test within the past 2 years, which is below the U.S. average of 72 %. Significant predictors included younger age, health insurance coverage, knowledge of screening frequency, and medically correct beliefs regarding risk groups. These factors, however, accounted for less than 16 % of the variance in Pap testing behavior. We discuss the poor predictive value of existing demographic and theoretical variables, and discuss potentially new areas of research that can aid in the development of future intervention studies. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.