Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature related to mobilization of the critically ill patient with an emphasis on functional outcomes and patient safety.
Methods: We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Medline (Ovid), and The Cochrane Library for a period spanning 2000-2011. Articles used in this review included randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, prospective and retrospective analyses, and case series in peer-reviewed journals. Sackett's Levels of Evidence were used to classify the current literature to evaluate the strength of the outcomes reported.
Results: Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. According to Sackett's Levels of Evidence, 9 studies were level 4 evidence, one study was level 3, 4 studies were level 2, and one study was level one evidence. Ten studies pertained to patient safety/feasibility and 10 studies pertained to functional outcomes with 5 fitting into both categories.
Conclusion: A search of the scientific literature revealed a limited number of studies that examined the mobilization of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. However, literature that does exist supports early mobilization and physical therapy as a safe and effective intervention that can have a significant impact on functional outcomes.
Keywords: critical illness; exercise; intensive care unit; mobilization; physical therapy.