Effect of different adhesion strategies on bond strength of resin composite to composite-dentin complex

Oper Dent. Jan-Feb 2013;38(1):63-72. doi: 10.2341/11-482-L. Epub 2012 Jul 19.


Service life of discolored and abraded resin composite restorations could be prolonged by repair or relayering actions. Composite-composite adhesion can be achieved successfully using some surface conditioning methods, but the most effective adhesion protocol for relayering is not known when the composite restorations are surrounded with dentin. This study evaluated the effect of three adhesion strategies on the bond strength of resin composite to the composite-dentin complex. Intact maxillary central incisors (N=72, n=8 per subgroup) were collected and the coronal parts of the teeth were embedded in autopolymerized poly(methyl tfr54methacrylate) surrounded by a polyvinyl chloride cylinder. Cylindrical cavities (diameter: 2.6 mm; depth: 2 mm) were opened in the middle of the labial surfaces of the teeth using a standard diamond bur, and the specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Two types of resin composite, namely microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine; AS) and nanohybrid (Grandio; G), were photo-polymerized incrementally in the cavities according to each manufacturer's recommendations. The composite-enamel surfaces were ground finished to 1200-grit silicone carbide paper until the dentin was exposed. The surfaces of the substrate composites and the surrounding dentin were conditioned according to one of the following adhesion protocols: protocol 1: acid-etching (dentin) + silica coating (composite) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); protocol 2: silica coating (composite) + acid-etching (dentin) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); and protocol 3: acid-etching (dentin) + primer (dentin) + silanization (composite) + bonding agent (dentin + composite). Applied primer and bonding agents were the corresponding materials of the composite manufacturer. Silica coating (CoJet sand, 30 μm) was achieved using a chairside air-abrasion device (distance: 10 mm; duration: four seconds in circular motion). After conditioning protocols, the repair resin was adhered to the substrate surfaces using transparent polyethylene molds (diameter: 3.6 mm) incrementally and photo-polymerized. The substrate-adherend combinations were as follows: AS-AS, G-G, AS-G. Shear force was applied to the adhesive interface in a Universal Testing Machine (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min). The types of failures were further evaluated and categorized as follows: 1) cohesive in the composite substrate and 2) adhesive at the interface. Bond strength values (MPa) were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc tests (α=0.05). Significant effects of the adhesion strategy (p=0.006) and the composite type (p=0.000) were found. Interaction terms were not significant (p=0.292). Regardless of the substrate-adherend combination, protocol 1 (17-22 MPa) showed significantly higher results than did protocols 2 (15-17 MPa) and 3 (11-17 MPa) (p=0.028, p=0.002, respectively). The highest results were obtained from the G-G combination after all three protocols (17-22 MPa). The incidence of cohesive failures was more common when the substrate and the adherend were the same composite type (AS-AS: 87.5%, 87.5%, 75%; G-G: 100%, 75%, 50% for protocols 1, 2, and 3, respectively). When substrate and adherend were used interchangeably, adhesive failures were more frequent (25%, 50%, and 100% for protocol 1, 2, and 3, respectively). When the substrate and the adherend are of the same type, greater repair strength could be expected. In the repair of composites next to the dentin, depending on the composite type, conditioning the composite with silica coating and silanization after etching the dentin adds to the repair strength compared to the results obtained with silane application only.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acid Etching, Dental / methods
  • Adhesiveness
  • Aluminum Oxide / chemistry
  • Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate / chemistry
  • Carbon Compounds, Inorganic / chemistry
  • Composite Resins / chemistry*
  • Dental Bonding / methods*
  • Dental Etching / methods
  • Dental Materials / chemistry*
  • Dental Stress Analysis / instrumentation
  • Dentin / ultrastructure*
  • Dentin-Bonding Agents / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Methacrylates / chemistry
  • Nanocomposites / chemistry
  • Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry
  • Polymerization
  • Polymethacrylic Acids / chemistry
  • Shear Strength
  • Silanes / chemistry
  • Silicon Compounds / chemistry
  • Silicon Dioxide / chemistry
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Surface Properties


  • Carbon Compounds, Inorganic
  • Composite Resins
  • Dental Materials
  • Dentin-Bonding Agents
  • Grandio
  • Methacrylates
  • Polymethacrylic Acids
  • Silanes
  • Silicon Compounds
  • quadrant anterior shine
  • triethylene glycol dimethacrylate
  • methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate
  • hydroxyethyl methacrylate
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Aluminum Oxide
  • silicon carbide