Insulin resistance and alanine amino transaminase (ALT) levels in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetes Metab Syndr. Jul-Sep 2011;5(3):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2012.02.011. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Abstract

Introduction: Insulin resistance is established as an independent predictor of a range of disorders such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. There is an association of hyperinsulinemia with hypertriglycerdemia, low level of HDL and high level of LDL. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there is an elevation of ALT, raising the possibility that the prospective relationship between ALT and type 2 diabetes may reflect cross-sectional associations with insulin resistance or obesity.

Aim and objective: To find the significance of insulin resistance and alanine aminotransferase level in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods: The study included 50 first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes (25 men and 25 women) aged 20-60 years and 30 control of similar age. All cases were taken from SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai. All the cases were analyzed for HOMA(IR), QUICKI, IR ratio, fasting glucose, insulin (ELISA), lipid profile and alanine aminotransferase. Student's 't' test was applied for statistical analysis.

Result: The data show the significance of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) (2.76±1.46, 1.35±0.8, p<0.001) in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus when compared with controls respectively and increased level fasting plasma insulin (12.28±6.16, 6.12±3.04, p<0.001). In the lipid profile the total cholesterol and TAG are significant. No statistical significance was found in ALT (24.8±9.84, 20.08±11.02).

Conclusion: Results of the study conclude that there is a high prevalence of insulin resistance in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. ALT levels in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased levels of insulin resistance, the pathogenesis suggesting increase in ALT levels as seen in insulin resistance condition. In our study, ALT was not statistically significant.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Liver Failure / blood
  • Liver Failure / genetics*
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Alanine Transaminase