Prevalence of atherosclerosis-related risk factors and diseases in the Philippines

J Epidemiol. 2012;22(5):440-7. doi: 10.2188/jea.je20110095. Epub 2012 Jul 14.


Background: We conducted a survey in 2008 to measure the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases and risk factors in Philippine adults.

Methods: Stratified multistage sampling was used to cover the entire Philippine population of adults aged 20 years or older. Using health questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood examinations, the prevalences of atherosclerosis-related risk factors and diseases were determined. Survey results were compared with those obtained in 2003.

Results: Out of 7700 eligible subjects, 64% to 93.7% responded to different survey items. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence was 24.6% at a single visit and 20.6% when corrected for true prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes was 3.9% on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 5.2% by FBG and history, and 6.0% when 2-hour post-load plasma glucose level was determined. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 72.0% and the prevalence of smoking was 31%. The prevalence of obesity was 4.9% by body mass index (BMI), and 10.2% and 65.6% by waist-hip ratio (WHR) in men and women, respectively. The prevalences of coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases were 1.1%, 0.9%, and 1.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalences of risk factors for atherosclerosis were higher in 2008 than in 2003, although the increase in diabetes was not significant and smoking decreased. These findings indicate a need for active collaborative intervention by all government agencies and medical societies in the Philippines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / complications*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Dyslipidemias / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Philippines / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Young Adult