MicroRNAs (miRs) are post-transcriptional inhibitory regulators of gene expression acting by direct binding to complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRs are crucial determinants of endothelial cell behavior and angiogenesis. We have provided evidence of the prominent role of miR-503 in impairment of postischemic reparative angiogenesis in the setting of diabetes. Because miR-503 belongs to the miR-16 extended family of miRs, in this review, we describe the cardiovascular functions of miR-503 and other members of the miR-16 family and their impact on angiogenesis.
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