The metabolic syndrome in a Congolese population and its implications for metabolic syndrome definitions

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2011 Jan-Mar;5(1):17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2010.05.009. Epub 2010 Jun 9.


Aim: Metabolic syndrome defined by International cut-off values are limited to detect people at high cardiometabolic risk in Central Africans in comparison with metabolic syndrome defined by ethnic-specific definition. We examined the relationship between metabolic syndromes, diabetes control, abdominal obesity, HDL-cholesterol groups and atherosclerotic complications.

Materials and methods: A representative sample of type-2 diabetic central Africans from Kinshasa were studied. Outcome measures included control of diabetes, atherosclerosis, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, metabolic syndromes and atherosclerosis.

Results: Of 1266 type-2 diabetic patients (48.8%), (61.8%), (27.1%) and (81%) had uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotics, metabolic syndrome (IDF/Europe), and metabolic syndrome (IDF/local) respectively. There was a significant U-shaped relationship between atherosclerotics complications, insulin resistance, delta postprandial glycaemia and HDL-cholesterol stratification. There was also a significant U-shaped relationship between cardiometabolic risk (P<0.01) and atherosclerotic complications.

Conclusion: Type-2 diabetic Central Africans exhibit very high rates of uncontrolled diabetes, atherosclerotic complications and metabolic syndrome. Both, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, low and very high HDL-cholesterol levels are cardiometabolic risk factors.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Black People / ethnology*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome / ethnology*
  • Middle Aged


  • Cholesterol, HDL