The E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) is an ideal target for developing immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV-associated tumors. However, because protein-based immunogens alone are poor elicitors of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, they have been difficult to exploit for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we report that a recombinant lipoprotein consisting of inactive E7 (E7m) biologically linked to a bacterial lipid moiety (rlipo-E7m) induces the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), skews the immune responses toward the Th1 responses and induces E7-specific CTL responses. We further studied the ability of rlipo-E7m to provide protection against a TC-1 tumor cell challenge in an animal model. Mice prophylactically immunized with two 10-µg doses of rlipo-E7m were found to be free of TC-1 tumor growth. Experiments in a therapeutic immunization model showed that the tumor volume in mice receiving a single dose of rlipo-E7m was less than 0.01 cm(3) on day 40, whereas the tumor volume in mice treated with rE7m was 2.28±1.21 cm(3). The tumor volume of the entire control group was over 3 cm(3). In addition, we demonstrated that the CD8+ T cells play a major role in anti-tumor immunity when administration of rlipo-E7m. These results demonstrate that rlipo-E7m could be a promising candidate for treating HPV-associated tumors.