High prevalence of sarcopenia and reduced leg muscle mass in Japanese patients immediately after a hip fracture

Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Apr;13(2):413-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00918.x. Epub 2012 Jul 23.


Aim: Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are becoming an emerging problem as a result of rapid aging worldwide. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia by estimating the muscle mass of the arms and legs of patients with and without hip fracture.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 357 patients immediately after a hip fracture (the HF group) and in 2511 patients from an outpatient clinic who did not have a hip fracture (the NF group) at single institution in Japan. We carried out whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; lean mass/height(2)) and bone mineral density (BMD). We carried out stepwise logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with a hip fracture.

Results: Lower appendicular SMI (P < 0.001), leg SMI (P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P < 0.001) were observed in the HF group after controlling for age and sex. The arm SMI was similar in both groups (P > 0.95). In multivariate analysis, the presence of sarcopenia, older age and lower BMD were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture (OR 1.476, P = 0.002; OR 1.103, P < 0.001; OR 0.082, P < 0.001; respectively).

Conclusion: This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia and more reduced leg muscle mass in patients after a hip fracture than in the outclinic patients who did not have hip fractures. The results imply sarcopenia can be a risk factor for a hip fracture.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adipose Tissue / pathology
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arm / pathology
  • Body Composition / physiology
  • Body Height
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Leg / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sarcopenia / epidemiology*