We studied 60 cases of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) with mesangial IgA deposits occurring over a 6 year period. There were 43 adults and 17 children. Hematuria occurred in 69.0% of the adults and 88.2% of the children. Two adults and six children had gross hematuria during the course of the disease. Mesangial IgA deposits were noted in 100% of the cases, and concomitant IgG or IgM deposits were found in 78.6% of adults and 73.7% of children. The fluorescent intensity of mesangial IgA deposits was trace (+/-) to 1+ in 86.1% and 70.6% of the adults and children respectively. Most of the patients showed electron microscopic findings consistent with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. We speculate that most of our cases are variants of minimal change nephrotic syndrome but are neither IgA nephropathy nor an overlapping syndrome, and that environmental or genetic factors may be related to the deposition of IgA in these MCNS patients.