Biophysiologic outcomes of the Enhancing Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes (ENHANCE) trial

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Aug;112(8):1147-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.05.008.


Background: Behavioral research to improve lifestyle in broadly defined populations of patients with type 2 diabetes is limited.

Objective: We evaluated a behavioral intervention featuring technology-based self-monitoring on biophysiologic outcomes of glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular risk.

Design: In this single-site, randomized clinical trial, participants were stratified by good and poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin <8% or ≥8%) and absence or presence of kidney disease, (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 or <60 mL/min) and randomized within strata. Measurements were obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months.

Participants/setting: Self-referred, community-dwelling adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Intervention: The intervention group received Social Cognitive Theory-based counseling paired with technology-based self-monitoring, and results were compared with an attention control group.

Main outcome measures: Glycated hemoglobin, fasting serum glucose, lipid levels, blood pressure, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were evaluated.

Statistical analyses performed: Mean differences within and between randomization groups were compared over time. Intervention effects over time were estimated using random intercept models.

Results: Two hundred ninety-six subjects were randomized, 256 (86.5%) completed 3-month and 246 (83.1%) completed 6-month assessments. Glycated hemoglobin was reduced in the intervention group by 0.5% at 3 months and 0.6% at 6 months (P<0.001 for each), and the control group by 0.3% (P<0.001) at 3 months and 0.2% (P<0.05) at 6 months; but between-group differences were not significant. In those with baseline glycated hemoglobin ≥8% and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min, glycated hemoglobin was reduced in the intervention group by 1.5% at 3 months and 1.8% at 6 months (P<0.001 for each), and the control group by 0.9% (P<0.001) at 3 months and 0.8% (P<0.05) at 6 months; but between-group differences were not significant. In random intercept models, the estimated reduction in glycated hemoglobin of 0.29% was not significant.

Conclusions: Two behavioral approaches to improving general lifestyle management in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus were effective in improving glycemic control, but no significant between-group differences were observed.

Trial registration: NCT00222846.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / therapy
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Self Care
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids

Associated data