Mitochondria are intracellular powerhouses that produce ATP and carry out diverse functions for cellular energy metabolism. Although the maintenance of an optimal NAD/NADH ratio is essential for mitochondrial function, it has recently become apparent that the maintenance of the mitochondrial NAD pool is also of crucial importance. The biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism of NAD and its key intermediates play an important role in the regulation of NAD-consuming mediators, such as sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, and CD38/157 ectoenzymes, in intra- and extracellular compartments. Mitochondrial NAD biosynthesis is also modulated in response to nutritional and environmental stimuli. In this article, we discuss this dynamic regulation of NAD metabolism in mitochondria to shed light on the intimate connection between NAD and mitochondrial function.
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