Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012 Oct;19(5):414-9. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283565bb2.


Purpose of review: To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure.

Recent findings: Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources.

Summary: Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amiodarone / administration & dosage
  • Amiodarone / adverse effects
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Supplements / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthyroidism / chemically induced
  • Hypothyroidism / chemically induced
  • Infant
  • Iodine / administration & dosage
  • Iodine / adverse effects*
  • Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Seaweed
  • Thyroid Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Thyroid Diseases / etiology
  • Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology
  • Thyroid Function Tests
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Iodine
  • Amiodarone