Vitamin D and hypertension: an update and review

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012 Sep;21(5):492-9. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283557bf0.


Purpose of review: Vitamin D deficiency and hypertension are highly prevalent. This review will discuss the association between vitamin D deficiency and blood pressure.

Recent findings: During the past several years multiple prospective cohorts and randomized studies have been published. Recent studies have focused mostly on 25-hydroxy vitamin D, but a small number of trials used active vitamin D analog compounds.

Summary: Data from cross-sectional studies report that low 25-hydroxy vitamin D is associated with higher systolic blood pressure and higher incidence of hypertension. Large observational studies show a weaker, yet similar association, but they have not largely accounted for the change in vitamin D levels over time. Randomized control trials conflict with observational data probably due to differences in populations studied, doses of vitamin D used, and unmeasured confounders. Further research is needed before clinical practice recommends vitamin D prescription as treatment for hypertension in the general population.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*


  • Vitamin D