Use of β-blockers is associated with prostate cancer-specific survival in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy

Prostate. 2013 Feb 15;73(3):250-60. doi: 10.1002/pros.22564. Epub 2012 Jul 20.


Background: Experimental evidence suggests a role for the β(2) -adrenergic receptor pathway in prostate cancer (PCa). We have investigated the association of β-blocker use with PCa incidence and survival in a Norwegian cohort.

Methods: Data from the Oslo II study in 2000 (n = 6515) were linked with information from the Cancer Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway. PCa risk and overall- and PCa-specific mortality were analyzed using uni- and multi-variable Cox- and competing risk regression models.

Results: At baseline, 776 men (11.9%) reported using a β-blocker. 212 men (3.3%) were diagnosed with PCa before the survey, leaving 6,303 eligible for incidence analysis. During a median follow-up of 122 months, 448 (7.1%) men were diagnosed with PCa. β-blocker use was not associated with PCa risk [hazard ratio (HR): 1.05, 95% CI: 0.79-1.40]. For all patients (n = 655; including med diagnosed before the survey), β-blocker use was not associated with PCa-specific mortality (HR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.24-1.26, P = 0.16). However, in the subgroup of men planned to receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), as reported to the Cancer Registry (n = 263), β-blocker use was associated with reduced PCa-specific mortality (HR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-0.85, P = 0.032). No effect on overall mortality was seen (HR, all patients: 0.88, 95% CI 0.56-1.38, P = 0.57). β-blocker use did not appear to affect PSA level, Gleason score, or T-stage at diagnosis; however, these variables were missing for many cases.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a possible benefit of β-blocker use for men treated with ADT, suggesting the need for investigation in larger cohorts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Aged
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Registries
  • Regression Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Androgen Antagonists