Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder resulting in neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. Treatment is challenging in pregnancy, because little data exist to guide management.
Case: A 24-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis using intravenous immunoglobulin therapy became pregnant. Her pregnancy was uncomplicated with no relapses. She delivered at 35 4/7 weeks of gestation after having preterm premature rupture of membranes. She had a relapse of symptoms after delivery.
Conclusion: This patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis had an uneventful pregnancy with overall good outcome; however, she experienced relapse soon after delivery. This disease may mimic other autoimmune diseases, with improvement during pregnancy and risk for relapse postpartum.