The cellular and molecular mechanisms that control lung homeostasis and regeneration are still poorly understood. It has been proposed that a population of cells exists in the mouse lung with the potential to differentiate into all major lung bronchioalveolar epithelium cell types in homeostasis or in response to virus infection. A new population of E-Cad/Lgr6(+) putative stem cells has been isolated, and indefinitely expanded from human lungs, harbouring both, self-renewal capacity and the potency to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. Recently, a putative population of human lung stem cells has been proposed as being c-Kit(+). Unlike Integrin-α6(+) or c-Kit(+) cells, E-Cad/Lgr6(+) single-cell injections in the kidney capsule produce differentiated bronchioalveolar tissue, while retaining self-renewal, as they can undergo serial transplantations under the kidney capsule or in the lung. In addition, a signalling network involving the p38α pathway, the activation of p53 and the regulation of the miR-17-92 cluster has been identified. Disruption of the proper cross-regulation of this signalling axis might be involved in the promotion of human lung diseases.