Structure-guided alterations of the gp41-directed HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5 reveal new properties regarding its neutralizing function

PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(7):e1002806. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002806. Epub 2012 Jul 19.


The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 2F5 recognizes an epitope in the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER). The MPER adopts a helical conformation as free peptide, as post-fusogenic forms of gp41, and when bound to the 4E10 monoclonal antibody (Mab). However, when bound to 2F5, the epitope is an extended-loop. The antibody-peptide structure reveals binding between the heavy and light chains with most the long, hydrophobic CDRH3 not contacting peptide. However, mutagenesis identifies this loop as critical for binding, neutralization and for putative hydrophobic membrane interactions. Here, we examined length requirements of the 2F5 CDRH3 and plasticity regarding binding and neutralization. We generated 2F5 variants possessing either longer or shorter CDRH3s and assessed function. The CDRH3 tolerated elongations and reductions up to four residues, displaying a range of binding affinities and retaining some neutralizing capacity. 2F5 antibody variants selective recognition of conformationally distinctive MPER probes suggests a new role for the CDRH3 loop in destabilizing the helical MPER. Binding and neutralization were enhanced by targeted tryptophan substitutions recapitulating fully the activities of the wild-type 2F5 antibody in a shorter CDRH3 variant. MPER alanine scanning revealed binding contacts of this variant downstream of the 2F5 core epitope, into the 4E10 epitope region. This variant displayed increased reactivity to cardiolipin-beta-2-glycoprotein. Tyrosine replacements maintained neutralization while eliminating cardiolipin-beta-2-glycoprotein interaction. The data suggest a new mechanism of action, important for vaccine design, in which the 2F5 CDRH3 contacts and destabilizes the MPER helix downstream of its core epitope to allow induction of the extended-loop conformation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / genetics
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology*
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / chemistry
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / genetics
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / immunology*
  • Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies
  • Cardiolipins / immunology
  • Cell Line
  • Epitopes / immunology
  • HEK293 Cells
  • HIV Antibodies / chemistry
  • HIV Antibodies / immunology*
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / chemistry
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I / immunology


  • 2F5 monoclonal antibody
  • 4E10 monoclonal antibody
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies
  • Cardiolipins
  • Epitopes
  • HIV Antibodies
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I