Diagnostic utility of NMO/AQP4-IgG in evaluating CNS inflammatory disease in Thai patients

J Neurol Sci. 2012 Sep 15;320(1-2):118-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2012.07.014. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies in Thailand have reported that inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs) commonly affect the optic nerve and spinal cord. We investigated the diagnostic utility of aquaporin (AQP)-4-IgG testing in 31 consecutive patients evaluated for CNS IDDs in 3 academic Thai hospital neurology clinics between February 2008 and January 2009. Patients were classified into 3 clinical diagnostic groups: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, n=10) multiple sclerosis (MS, n=5) and unclassified IDD (n=16). All sera were tested blindly by cell binding (Euroimmun) assay (CBA). Sera were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and ELISA (RSR/Kronus). After initial screening by CBA, AQP4-IgG was detected in 6 NMO patients (60%); 3 of the 4 seronegative cases were receiving immunosuppressants. AQP4-IgG was detected in 13 unclassified IDD cases (81%), but in no MS cases. Cell binding assay and ELISA were more sensitive than IFA (p=0.0004). The 81% seropositivity rate in "unclassified" patients suggests that AQP4 autoimmunity accounts for a significant proportion of Thai CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease, especially those with optic neuritis or transverse myelitis, with or without abnormal brain MRI, in whom a specific diagnosis or clear-cut treatment approach is unclear.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aquaporin 4* / blood
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / blood
  • Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G* / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / blood
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • Neuromyelitis Optica / blood
  • Neuromyelitis Optica / diagnosis
  • Predictive Value of Tests

Substances

  • Aquaporin 4
  • Autoantibodies
  • Immunoglobulin G