Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) has been previously detected in cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) of different mammalian species using immunocytochemical methods. A nearly complete identity between THP and uromodulin, an immunosuppressive glycoprotein present in the urine of pregnant females, has been established recently. This paper describes the cellular location of THP mRNA by high-resolution in situ hybridization using a [35S]-labeled human uromodulin cRNA (antisense-) probe of a length of 665 base pairs. Control experiments were performed using an mRNA (sense-) probe of the same length. The probe was hybridized to frozen sections of the rat kidney. THP mRNA distribution in the kidney was found to be homologous to the immunocytochemical labeling pattern: Autoradiographic signal was present along the entire length of the TAL including the post-macula segment which leads to the distal convoluted tubule. Tubular cells of the macula densa were negative. Labeling intensity of the TAL epithelium was found to increase from the origin of the TAL at the transition between inner and outer medulla to its end beyond the macula densa. Labeling of the medullary segment in the inner stripe was weak, whereas outer medullary and cortical segments very strongly expressed THP mRNA. The glomerulus, the portions of the nephron proximal to the TAL, the distal convoluted tubule as well as the collecting duct system were negative.