Background: The active metabolite of vitamin D 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D(3) ) has exhibited broad-spectrum antitumor activity in xenograft animal models. However, its activity against metastatic disease has not been extensively investigated.
Methods: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or 1,25D(3) -resistant variant SCC-DR cells were treated with 1,25D(3) . Actin organization was examined by immunofluorescence assay. Cell migration was assessed by "wound" healing and chemotactic migration assays. Cell invasion was assessed by a Matrigel-based invasion assay and in situ zymography. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression and secretion were examined by immunoblot analysis and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. E-cadherin expression was assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of E-cadherin was achieved by small interfering RNA. An experimental metastasis mouse model was created by intravenous injection of tumor cells; and lung tumor development in the mice was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, gross observation, and histology.
Results: SCC cellular morphology and actin organization were altered by 10 nM 1,25D(3) . 1,25D(3) inhibited SCC cell motility and invasion, which were associated with reduced expression and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and 1,25D(3) promoted the expression of E-cadherin. These findings were not observed in SCC-DR cells. Knock down of E-cadherin rescued 1,25D(3) -inhibited cell migration. Intravenous injection of SCC or SCC-DR cells resulted in the establishment of extensive pulmonary lesions in saline-treated C3H mice. Treatment with 1,25D(3) resulted in a marked reduction in the formation of lung tumor colonies in mice that were injected with SCC cells, but not in mice that were injected with SCC-DR cells.
Conclusions: 1,25D(3) suppressed SCC cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, partially through the promotion of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion.
Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.