NESdb: a database of NES-containing CRM1 cargoes

Mol Biol Cell. 2012 Sep;23(18):3673-6. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E12-01-0045. Epub 2012 Jul 25.


The leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) is the only known class of targeting signal that directs macromolecules out of the cell nucleus. NESs are short stretches of 8-15 amino acids with regularly spaced hydrophobic residues that bind the export karyopherin CRM1. NES-containing proteins are involved in numerous cellular and disease processes. We compiled a database named NESdb that contains 221 NES-containing CRM1 cargoes that were manually curated from the published literature. Each NESdb entry is annotated with information about sequence and structure of both the NES and the cargo protein, as well as information about experimental evidence of NES-mapping and CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NESdb will be updated regularly and will serve as an important resource for nuclear export signals. NESdb is freely available to nonprofit organizations at

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Karyopherins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Export Signals*
  • Protein Binding
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*


  • Karyopherins
  • Nuclear Export Signals
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • exportin 1 protein