Identification and characterization of D-hydroxyproline dehydrogenase and Delta1-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate deaminase involved in novel L-hydroxyproline metabolism of bacteria: metabolic convergent evolution

J Biol Chem. 2012 Sep 21;287(39):32674-88. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.374272. Epub 2012 Jul 25.


L-hydroxyproline (4-hydroxyproline) mainly exists in collagen, and most bacteria cannot metabolize this hydroxyamino acid. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa convert L-hydroxyproline to α-ketoglutarate via four hypothetical enzymatic steps different from known mammalian pathways, but the molecular background is rather unclear. Here, we identified and characterized for the first time two novel enzymes, D-hydroxyproline dehydrogenase and Δ(1)-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate (Pyr4H2C) deaminase, involved in this hypothetical pathway. These genes were clustered together with genes encoding other catalytic enzymes on the bacterial genomes. D-hydroxyproline dehydrogenases from P. putida and P. aeruginosa were completely different from known bacterial proline dehydrogenases and showed similar high specificity for substrate (D-hydroxyproline) and some artificial electron acceptor(s). On the other hand, the former is a homomeric enzyme only containing FAD as a prosthetic group, whereas the latter is a novel heterododecameric structure consisting of three different subunits (α(4)β(4)γ(4)), and two FADs, FMN, and [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster were contained in αβγ of the heterotrimeric unit. These results suggested that the L-hydroxyproline pathway clearly evolved convergently in P. putida and P. aeruginosa. Pyr4H2C deaminase is a unique member of the dihydrodipicolinate synthase/N-acetylneuraminate lyase protein family, and its activity was competitively inhibited by pyruvate, a common substrate for other dihydrodipicolinate synthase/N-acetylneuraminate lyase proteins. Furthermore, disruption of Pyr4H2C deaminase genes led to loss of growth on L-hydroxyproline (as well as D-hydroxyproline) but not L- and D-proline, indicating that this pathway is related only to L-hydroxyproline degradation, which is not linked to proline metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases / chemistry
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases / genetics
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases / metabolism*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Hydroxyproline / chemistry
  • Hydroxyproline / genetics
  • Hydroxyproline / metabolism*
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / enzymology*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / genetics
  • Pseudomonas putida / enzymology*
  • Pseudomonas putida / genetics
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases
  • Hydroxyproline