Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery: where are we now and where are we heading? An industrial perspective

Ther Deliv. 2012 Feb;3(2):195-208. doi: 10.4155/tde.11.149.


Delivery of drug therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier is a challenging task for pharmaceutical scientists. Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery has shown promising results in preclinical efficacy models and investigatory human clinical trials. The further development of this technology with respect to the establishment of valid, predictable preclinical species models, translatable pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships and definition of toxicology impact will help attract additional pharmaceutical investment in this drug-delivery approach. Further discoveries in nasal nanotechnology, targeted delivery devices and diagnostic olfactory imaging will serve to fuel the advancements in this area of drug delivery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism*
  • Capillary Permeability
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / trends
  • Drug Carriers
  • Drug Compounding / trends
  • Humans
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanotechnology / trends
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage*
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical / trends*


  • Drug Carriers
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations