Index of glucose effectiveness derived from oral glucose tolerance test

Acta Diabetol. 2012 Dec;49 Suppl 1:S195-204. doi: 10.1007/s00592-012-0417-y. Epub 2012 Jul 27.


Aim of this study was to formulate an index for glucose effectiveness (Sg), SgIo, based on 3-point (0, 30 and 120 min) 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The equation for SgI(O) was developed in the Chikuma cohort (n = 502). Firstly, post-loading plasma glucose without insulin action and Sg (PPG-without insulin and Sg) was calculated as follows: fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) + [0.75 × 75,000]/[0.19 × BW(kg) × 10]. Secondly, 'PPG-without insulin/with Sg' was obtained from inverse correlation between log(10)DI(O) and 2-h post-glucose plasma glucose at OGTT (2hPG) in each glucose tolerance category: DI(O) denotes oral disposition index, a product of the Matsuda Index and δIRI(0-30)/δPG(0-30). Thirdly, expected 2hPG (2hPG(E)) of a given subject was obtained from the regression, and the ratio of 2hPG to 2hPG(E) (2hPG/2hPG(E)) was determined as an adjustment factor. Lastly, SgI(O) ([mg/dl]/min) was calculated as [PPG-without insulin and Sg]-[PPG-without insulin / with Sg] x [(2hPG) / 2hPG(E)]. SgI(O) was validated against Sg obtained by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in the Jichi cohort (n = 205). Also, the accuracy of prediction of Sg by SgIo was tested by the Bland-Altman plot. SgI(O) was 3.61 ± 0.73, 3.17 ± 0.74 and 2.15 ± 0.60 in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), non-diabetic hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively, in the Chikuma cohort. In the Jichi cohort, SgI(O) was significantly correlated with Sg in the entire group (r = 0.322, P < 0.001) and in subjects with NGT (r = 0.286, P < 0.001), and SgIo accurately predicted Sg. In conclusion, SgI(O) could be a simple, quantitative index for Sg.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test / methods*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test / standards
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Insulin
  • Glucose