Chronic renal failure and dialysis belong to contraindications to vaccination with live vaccines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the humoral response to influenza vaccination consisting of the formation of antibodies against hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure. The study included 173 patients treated at a dialysis station in the Silesian region in Poland. The patients were assigned to the following groups: Group A-71 hemodialysis patients, mean age 65.4 ± 14.5 years; mean time of dialysis therapy 38.9 ± 31.7 months, vaccinated against influenza; Group B-39 hemodialysis patients, mean age 64 ± 13.5 years; mean time of dialysis therapy 45.0 ± 45.2 months, not vaccinated against influenza; and Group C-63 healthy patients, mean age 44.1 ± 21.2 years, vaccinated against influenza - control group. The vaccinated patients (Groups A & C) received a single dose of Agrippal influenza vaccine (Novartis) containing hemagglutinin from three strains of the influenza virus: A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2), and B/Brisbane/60/2008. The serological response to vaccination was assessed from antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) and antineuraminidase antibody assays (anti-NA). We found that the protection level of antibodies (protection rate) against H1 was only 40% among the vaccinated hemodialysis patients, as opposed to 65% in controls. The level of anti-H3 antibodies was similar in both groups of vaccines; 68% in dialysis patients and 75% in controls. The level of anti-HB antibodies was higher in the dialysis patient than in controls; 70% vs. 38%, respectively. The response rate to H1 antigen a month after vaccination was almost twice lower in the hemodialysis patients than in healthy controls vaccinated against influenza; 37% vs. 65%, respectively. We conclude that there is a rather insufficient serological response in the group of hemodialysis patients vaccinated with a single dose of influenza vaccine.