Piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine) was isolated from Piper nigrum Linn for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Different acute and chronic experimental models like carrageenin-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma, and croton oil-induced granuloma pouch, were employed. Simultaneously, biochemical estimations were made to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the action. Piperine acted significantly on early acute changes in inflammatory processes and chronic granulative changes. It also acted partially through stimulation of pituitary adrenal axis. Exudative changes in both acute and chronic models, however, were insignificant.