Cavernous hemangioma (CH) is a sporadic vascular malformation occurring either as an autosomal dominant condition or as a well-known complication of radiation exposure. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor common in children and currently treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Neurofibromatosis is the most common single-gene disorder of the central nervous system. Posterior fossa malignant tumors in the context of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) are very infrequent. This is the first documented case of an unusual metachronous occurrence of non-radiation-induced CH and medulloblastoma in a child with NF1 phenotype. We report the case of a 13-month-old boy with café-au-lait skin lesions associated with NF1-like phenotype who underwent surgical resection of a single CH in the temporal lobe due to recurrent seizures. Four years later he presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure associated with a posterior fossa tumor and hydrocephalus, thus requiring gross total resection of the lesion. Histological analysis revealed a medulloblastoma. After being treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, he achieved total remission. Six years later a massive recurrence of the tumor was observed and the child eventually died. The interest in this case lies in the rarity of NF1-like phenotype associated with a non-radiation-induced brain CH and medulloblastoma in a child.
Keywords: Cavernous hemangioma; medulloblastoma; neurofibromatosis type1; pediatric neurosurgery; radiation therapy.