Purpose: To report the frequency and predictors of presenting seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and their influence on seizure recurrence and outcome.
Methods: This retrospective study, between 1995 and 2011, included 90 consecutive patients with CVST diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Clinical parameters like frequency, type (presenting, early, and late), and duration of seizures, precipitating causes of CVST, and underlying prothrombotic conditions, were recorded. The location of infarction on MRI and the number of sinuses involved on MRV, were noted. The patients were prescribed anticoagulants, and those with seizures were prescribed antiepileptic drugs. The patients were followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The functional outcome at 6 months was categorized into death, poor, partial and complete recovery.
Results: A total of 42 patients with CVST presented with seizures (focal 11, focal with secondary generalized 19, and generalized tonic clonic 16), of whom 10 had status epilepticus. On univariate analysis, supratentorial lesion (P=0.005), frontal (P=0.02) or parietal lobe (P=0.04) involvement and haemorrhagic lesion (P=0.002) were associated with higher risk of presenting seizure. On multivariate analysis, only supratentorial parenchymal lesion on MRI (odds ratio [OR]=4.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-15.08, P=0.005) was independently associated with higher risk of presenting seizure. Only 4 patients had early seizures and none had late seizures. At 6 months, 10 patients died and 73 patients had complete recovery. Seizures were not associated with death (P=1.00) and 6-month functional outcome (P=0.66).
Conclusion: About half the patients with CVST had presenting seizures which was independently related to supratentorial lesion. However, seizures were not related to death or 6-month outcome.
Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.