Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats

J Nutr Biochem. 2013 May;24(5):809-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.04.016. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Abstract

To clarify the effects of natural dietary components on the metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of yerba mate extract Ilex paraguariensis on both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity and correlated the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level with adipose depot weight. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group (CTL) fed with chow diet, a second group fed with chow diet plus yerba mate extract (CTL+E), a third group fed with a high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD) and a fourth group fed with HFD plus yerba mate extract (HFD+E). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, colorimetric method and treatment by gavage were utilized as materials and methods. The HFD groups showed a significant increase in food intake (kcal), body weight, adipose tissue and leptin level in comparison to CTL and CTL+E. HFD leads to increase of both central and peripheral inflammatory effects, and deregulation of insulin pathway. In addition, yerba mate extract intake blunted the proinflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats by reducing the phosphorylation of hypothalamic IKK and NFκBp65 expression and increasing the phosphorylation of IκBα, the expression of adiponectin receptor-1 and consequently the amount of IRS-2. Moreover, the increase in interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the liver and muscle and of the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in groups that received yerba mate extract showed the anti-inflammatory effects of this natural substance. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of yerba mate extract may be useful for reducing low-grade obesity-associated inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Diet, High-Fat*
  • Energy Intake
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Fasting
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage
  • Hypothalamus / drug effects
  • Hypothalamus / metabolism
  • I-kappa B Proteins / genetics
  • I-kappa B Proteins / metabolism
  • Ilex paraguariensis / chemistry*
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / genetics
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism
  • Interleukin-10 / analysis
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / analysis
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Leptin / blood
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Muscles / drug effects
  • Muscles / metabolism
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / drug therapy*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, Adiponectin / genetics
  • Receptors, Adiponectin / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • fas Receptor / genetics
  • fas Receptor / metabolism

Substances

  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Fas protein, rat
  • Fatty Acids
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Interleukin-6
  • Irs2 protein, rat
  • Leptin
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nfkbia protein, rat
  • Plant Extracts
  • Receptors, Adiponectin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • adiponectin receptor 1, rat
  • fas Receptor
  • Interleukin-10
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • mTOR protein, rat