The Arabidopsis HEI10 is a new ZMM protein related to Zip3

PLoS Genet. 2012;8(7):e1002799. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002799. Epub 2012 Jul 26.


In numerous species, the formation of meiotic crossovers is largely under the control of a group of proteins known as ZMM. Here, we identified a new ZMM protein, HEI10, a RING finger-containing protein that is well conserved among species. We show that HEI10 is structurally and functionally related to the yeast Zip3 ZMM and that it is absolutely required for class I crossover (CO) formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we show that it is present as numerous foci on the chromosome axes and the synaptonemal complex central element until pachytene. Then, from pachytene to diakinesis, HEI10 is retained at a limited number of sites that correspond to class I COs, where it co-localises with MLH1. Assuming that HEI10 early staining represents an early selection of recombination intermediates to be channelled into the ZMM pathway, HEI10 would therefore draw a continuity between early chosen recombination intermediates and final class I COs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / cytology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Plant / genetics
  • Crossing Over, Genetic*
  • Fertility / genetics
  • Homologous Recombination
  • Miosis / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • Mutation
  • RING Finger Domains / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid*
  • Synaptonemal Complex / genetics*
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • Yeasts / genetics


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • HEI10 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • MLH1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • Zip3 protein, S cerevisiae