The cause(s) of myopia and the efforts that have been made to prevent it

Clin Exp Optom. 2012 Nov;95(6):572-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1444-0938.2012.00781.x. Epub 2012 Jul 30.


In spite of a long history of study, as well as a significant, recent increase in research attention, the cause(s) and the means of preventing or mitigating the progression of myopia in children are still elusive. The high and growing prevalence of myopia, especially in Asian populations, as well as its progressive nature in children and its effect on visual acuity, have contributed to the recent surge in interest. Animal research carried out in the 1970s also helped spark this interest by legitimising the study of environmental influences on the refractive development of the eye. Efforts that include the use of visual training or biofeedback, bifocal and progressive lenses, contact lenses and pharmaceuticals are reviewed. Current research trends that focus on the relationship between genetics and environment, as well as studies, both animal and human, that explore the effect of peripheral refractive error on the refractive development of the central retina are also reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contact Lenses*
  • Disease Progression
  • Eyeglasses*
  • Humans
  • Myopia* / etiology
  • Myopia* / physiopathology
  • Myopia* / prevention & control
  • Optometry / methods*
  • Refraction, Ocular
  • Visual Acuity