Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

Clin Ophthalmol. 2012:6:1011-8. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S31904. Epub 2012 Jul 3.


Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options.

Keywords: acquired punctal stenosis; definition; epiphora; etiology; treatment.