The chemokine interferon-γ inducible protein 10 kDa (CXCL10) is a member of the CXC chemokine family which binds to the CXCR3 receptor to exert its biological effects. CXCL10 is involved in chemotaxis, induction of apoptosis, regulation of cell growth and mediation of angiostatic effects. CXCL10 is associated with a variety of human diseases including infectious diseases, chronic inflammation, immune dysfuntion, tumor development, metastasis and dissemination. More importantly, CXCL10 has been identified as a major biological marker mediating disease severity and may be utilized as a prognostic indicator for various diseases. In this review, we focus on current research elucidating the emerging role of CXCL10 in the pathogenesis of cancer. Understanding the role of CXCL10 in disease initiation and progression may provide the basis for developing CXCL10 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for related human malignancies.