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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2012 Jul 31;11:53.
doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-53.

Beneficial Immunostimulatory Effect of Short-Term Chlorella Supplementation: Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity and Early Inflammatory Response (Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial)

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Beneficial Immunostimulatory Effect of Short-Term Chlorella Supplementation: Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity and Early Inflammatory Response (Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial)

Jung Hyun Kwak et al. Nutr J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans.

Methods: This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured.

Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-γ and interleukin-1β (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1β (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-γ (r=0.570, p<001).

Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Serum concentration of IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-12 before and after the 8-week Chlorella supplementation. Mean ± SE, tested by paired t-test (intra group comparison) or independent t-test (intergroup comparison). There were no significant differences in the baseline values between the Chlorella group and the placebo group. *P <0.05, **P <0.01 compared with the value at baseline in each group; ϕP <0.01, ϕϕP <0.001, comparison of Δ change value between the Chlorella group and the placebo group.
Figure 2
Figure 2
NK cell activity of effector cells before and after the 8-week Chlorella supplementation. Mean ± SE, tested by paired t-test (intra group comparison) or independent t-test (intergroup comparison). There were no significant differences in the baseline values between the Chlorella group and the placebo group. *P <0.05, compared with the value at baseline in each group; ϕP <0.05, comparison of Δ change value between the Chlorella group and the placebo group. E: effector cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects), T: target cells (K562 cells).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Relationship among changed levels of NK cell activity and serum IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-12. r :Pearson correlation coefficient. E: effector cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects), T: target cells (K562 cells).

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