Prevalence and risk factors of psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients

Actas Esp Psiquiatr. Jul-Aug 2012;40(4):187-97. Epub 2012 Jul 1.


Objectives: Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This work reviews that evidence and tries to obtain data regarding frequency of psychotic symptoms or cocaine induced psychosis (CIP), risks or associated factors.

Method: Systematic review of studies found in PubMed database published until January 2011 where cocaine induced paranoia was present.

Results: Cocaine induced paranoia has a particular clinical presentation. It needs to be clearly identified due to its harmful consequences. The prevalence is between 12% in clinical studies and 100% in experimental studies. The following are considered potential risk factors: age of first use and length, amount of substance, route of administration, body mass index, genetic factors, personal vulnerability and comorbidity with AXIS I (psychosis, ADHD) and AXIS II disorders (antisocial personality disorder).

Conclusions: It is needed to research with larger samples of cocaine users of different countries and contexts, in order to identify and detail what variables are closely related in the development of cocaine induced paranoia, so the population at risk can be treated earlier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis
  • Psychotic Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Psychotic Disorders / etiology*
  • Risk Factors