Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical. We examined the association between urinary BPA levels and obesity in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2008. The main outcome of interest was obesity defined as (1) body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 Kg/m(2) and (2) waist circumference (WC) ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women. Urinary BPA levels were examined in quartiles. Overall, we observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and both measures of obesity, independent of potential confounding factors including, smoking, alcohol consumption, and serum cholesterol levels. Compared to quartile 1 (referent), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with quartile 4 for BMI-based obesity was 1.69 (1.30-2.20); P-trend < 0.0001 and for WC-based obesity was 1.59 (1.21-2.09); P-trend = 0.0009. This association between BPA and both measures of obesity was consistently present across gender and race-ethnic groups (all P-trend < 0.05). Elevated levels of urinary BPA are associated with measures of obesity independent of traditional risk factors. This association is consistently present across gender and race-ethnic groups. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm or disprove this finding.