The 'colloidal platinum' stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pt/PVP-colloid) was dispersed in hydrogen-rich water (HW; hydrogen concentration, 0.82 ppm; oxidation-reduction potential, -583 mV) or regular water (RW; <0.01 ppm, +218 mV). And we evaluated the antioxidant activity of Pt/PVP-colloid in HW or RW on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and improvement of blood fluidity under 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress. When applied with the 0.25-0.5 ppm Pt/PVP-colloid in RW or HW, the level of DPPH radicals decreased to 77.5-59.6% or 16.1-5.6%, in contrast to the level as high as 81.3% for HW alone, respectively, as measured by an electron spin resonance method. The horse blood, which was subjected to AAPH-induced oxidative stress, was incubated for 24 hr with RW or HW, and thereafter required 13.7 sec (100%) or 5.7 sec (42.3%) for passing through the micro-channels in a rheology equipment. When treated with 0.5-1.0 ppm Pt/PVP-colloid in RW or HW, the blood passage time in the micro-channels decreased dose-dependently to 9.7-7.3 sec (71.6-53.8%) or 4.3-1.3 sec (32.8-10.3%), and the rate of micro-channels clogged with erythrocyte aggregates decreased to 23.8-21.0% or 15.8-9.8%, respectively, from 42.8% for no addition of Pt/PVP. By scanning electron microscopy, AAPH-treated erythrocytes lost intact surface morphology on the membrane together with protrusions and without hollows, being indicative of impaired transforming ability, and the rate of erythrocyte agglutination was increased to 46.2%. When treated the horse blood with HW alone significantly decreased the rate of erythrocyte agglutination to 29.6%, whereas 1.0 ppm Pt/PVP-colloid in RW or HW decreased it to 24.1% or 21.1%, respectively. Thus, DPPH-radical-scavenging and erythrocyte-protecting effects of Pt/PVP-colloid in HW were superior to those of Pt/PVP-colloid in RW or Pt/PVP-free HW. The results could be mainly attributed to the enhanced antioxidant activity of Pt/PVP in HW, which may be due to captured-hydrogen on platinum.