Objectives: To test whether the multiple phenotype and genotype relationships established using therapeutic dose, can be reproduced following oral microdosing using substrates of CYP2C9 (warfarin and glibenclamide), CYP2C19 (lansoprazole), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), and OATPs (glibenclamide).
Methods: A cocktail of test drugs was administered orally under the microdose in liquid or capsule form, and then a therapeutic dose of dextromethorphan was administered to 17 healthy subjects whose genotypes for CYPs and OATPs had been prescreened. Concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites were measured by LC-MS/MS.
Results: The AUC and t1/2 of glibenclamide following the microdosing tended to be higher and longer, respectively, in CYP2C9*1/*3 than CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects. In contrast, there were no significant differences in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters for warfarin between the two genotypes. For CYP2D6 following the therapeutic dose, there was good concordance between genotype and phenotype; however, such relationships disappeared after microdosing. For CYP2C19 following the microdosing, there were significant differences between EMs and PMs in the pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole. The relative AUC0-12 ratio of lansoprazole in EMs and PMs was 1:3.3 - 4.3. Among test drugs, phenotypic measurements of lansoprazole accorded well with the CYP2C19 genotype at the microdose as well as therapeutic dose.
Conclusions: The present study suggests that 1) the sampling strategy should be optimized according to pharmacokinetic profiles of the test drugs following oral microdosing, and 2) microdosing can be applied to the pharmacogenomic study of CYP-specific drugs.