Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Mar;64(2):175-84. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2012.710894. Epub 2012 Aug 2.


Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥ 21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / ethnology
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / etiology
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Deficiency Diseases / ethnology
  • Deficiency Diseases / etiology*
  • Diabetes Complications* / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Diet* / ethnology
  • Energy Intake / ethnology
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Micronutrients / deficiency*
  • Middle Aged
  • Minority Groups
  • Nutrition Assessment*
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • United States


  • Micronutrients