Hormonal interactions in the regulation of plant development

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2012;28:463-87. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101011-155741. Epub 2012 Jul 25.


Plants exhibit a unique developmental flexibility to ever-changing environmental conditions. To achieve their profound adaptability, plants are able to maintain permanent stem cell populations and form new organs during the entire plant life cycle. Signaling substances, called plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, and strigolactone, govern and coordinate these developmental processes. Physiological and genetic studies have dissected the molecular components of signal perception and transduction of the individual hormonal pathways. However, over recent years it has become evident that hormones do not act only in a linear pathway. Hormonal pathways are interconnected by a complex network of interactions and feedback circuits that determines the final outcome of the individual hormone actions. This raises questions about the molecular mechanisms underlying hormonal cross talk and about how these hormonal networks are established, maintained, and modulated throughout plant development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abscisic Acid / metabolism
  • Abscisic Acid / physiology
  • Brassinosteroids / metabolism
  • Cytokinins / metabolism
  • Cytokinins / physiology
  • Ethylenes / metabolism
  • Germination
  • Gibberellins / metabolism
  • Gibberellins / physiology
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism
  • Plant Development*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology*
  • Plant Roots / growth & development*
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plant Shoots / growth & development
  • Plant Shoots / metabolism
  • Plants / metabolism*


  • Brassinosteroids
  • Cytokinins
  • Ethylenes
  • Gibberellins
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Abscisic Acid