The basal ganglia network serves to integrate information about context, actions, and outcomes to shape the behavior of an animal based on its past experience. Clinically, the basal ganglia receive the most attention for their role in movement disorders. Recent advances in technology have opened new avenues of research into the structure and function of basal ganglia circuits. One emerging theme is the importance of GABAergic interneurons in coordinating and regulating network function. Here, we discuss evidence that changes in striatal GABAergic microcircuits contribute to basal ganglia dysfunction in several movement disorders. Because interneurons are genetically and neurochemically unique from striatal projection neurons, they may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of a variety of striatal-based disorders.
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