Objective: Neurofilament (NF) is a major cytoskeletal protein of neurons. Elevation of serum NF concentration suggests neuronal injury, especially damage to axons. We assessed neuronal damage in febrile seizure (FS) by using NF.
Methods: We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum levels of the phosphorylated form of NF-heavy chain (pNF-H) in 42 children with FS and 28 controls.
Results: Serum pNF-H levels in children with prolonged febrile seizure (PFS) (n=29) were significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in serum pNF-H levels between children with simple febrile seizure (n=9) and the controls. There was a significant correlation between seizure duration and serum pNF-H levels during the first week in children with FS (p=0.022, r=0.37).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that PFS could lead to some degree of neuronal damage even in the absence of abnormal clinical neurological findings during the short-term follow up period.
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