Selection of tools for reconciliation, compliance and appropriateness of treatment in patients with multiple chronic conditions

Eur J Intern Med. 2012 Sep;23(6):506-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2012.06.007. Epub 2012 Jun 26.


Background: The healthcare models developed for patients with multiple chronic diseases agree on the need for improving drug therapy in these patients. The issues of patient compliance, appropriateness of prescriptions and the reconciliation process are of vital importance for patients receiving multiple drug treatment.

Objective: To identify and select the most appropriate tools for measuring treatment compliance and appropriateness in multiple-disease patients, as well as the best reconciliation strategy.

Methods: The study used the Delphi methodology. We identified compliance and appropriateness questionnaires and scales, as well as functional organisation models for reconciliation that had been used in patients with multiple chronic conditions. Based on the strength of the evidence, their usefulness in these patients and ease of use, the panel selected the most appropriate ones.

Results: We selected 46 indications for the panel: 5 on compliance, 20 on appropriateness, and 31 on reconciliation. The tool considered most appropriate and with a high degree of agreement was the "Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale" questionnaire. For appropriateness, the Medication Appropriateness Index questionnaire was considered appropriate. The STOPP/START criteria were the most appropriate. The greatest degree of agreement regarding reconciliation was on the information that needed to be collected and the variables considered as discrepancies.

Conclusions: The "Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale" questionnaire for compliance, the STOPP/START criteria, the Medication Appropriateness Index questionnaire for appropriateness and the development of a specific strategy for reconciliation were considered appropriate for the assessment of drug therapy in patients with multiple chronic conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease / drug therapy*
  • Delphi Technique
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Medication Reconciliation / methods*
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data
  • Quality of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires