Memory performance has been reported to be associated with electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha activity. This study aimed to improve short term memory performance by individual alpha neurofeedback training (NFT). With appropriate protocol designed for NFT, the experimental results showed that the participants were able to learn to increase the relative amplitude in individual alpha band during NFT and short term memory performance was significantly enhanced by 20 sessions of NFT. More importantly, further analysis revealed that the improvement of short term memory was positively correlated with the increase of the relative amplitude in the individual upper alpha band during training. In addition, effective strategies for individual alpha training varied among individuals and the most successful mental strategies were related to positive thinking.
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