The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate sodium salt (AKG) treatment on the mineralization of the tibia in female rats during the development of osteopenia (Experiment-1) and in the condition of established osteopenia (Experiment-2). Thirty-two female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) to induce osteopenia and osteoporosis and another 32 female rats were sham-operated (SHO) and then randomly divided between the two experiments. In Experiment-1, the treatment with AKG started after a 7-day period of convalescence, whereas in Experiment-2 the rats were subjected to a 60-day period of osteopenia fixation, after which the actual experimental protocol commenced. AKG was administered in the experimental solution for drinking at a concentration of 1.0 mol/l and a placebo (PLC) was used as a control solution. After 60 days of experimental treatment the rats in both experiements were sacrificed, the body weight recorded, and blood serum and isolated tibia were stored for further analysis. The bones were analyzed using tomography and densitometry, and for estimation of mechanical properties the 3-point bending test was used. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin and collagen type I crosslinked C-telopeptide were measured. The anabolic effects of AKG on bone during osteopenia development in Experiment-1 not only stopped the degradation of bone tissue, but also stimulated its mineralization. The usage of AKG in animals with established osteopenia (Experiment-2) was not able to prevent bone atrophy, but markedly reduced its intensity. The stimulation of tibia mineralization after AKG treatment has been also argued in healthy SHO animals. The results obtained prove the effectiveness of AKG usage in the prophylaxis and therapy of osteopenia and osteoporosis, induced by bilateral gonadectomy. Additionally, the results clearly prove that treatment with AKG improves the mineralization of bone tissue in healthy animals.