Quantitative trait loci associated with androgenic responsiveness in triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) anther culture

Plant Cell Rep. 2012 Nov;31(11):2099-108. doi: 10.1007/s00299-012-1320-2. Epub 2012 Aug 4.


Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with androgenic responsiveness in triticale were analyzed using a population of 90 DH lines derived from the F1 cross between inbred line 'Saka 3006' and cv. 'Modus', which was used in a number of earlier studies on molecular mapping in this crop. Using Windows QTL Cartographer and MapQTL 5.0, composite interval mapping (CIM) and association studies (Kruskal-Wallis test; K-W) for five androgenesis parameters (androgenic embryo induction, total regeneration and green plant regeneration ability, and two characteristics describing final androgenesis efficiency) were conducted. For the studied components of androgenic response, CIM detected in total 28 QTLs which were localized on 5 chromosomes from A and R genomes. Effects of all QTLs that were identified at 2.0 or above of the LOD score explained 5.1-21.7 % of the phenotypic variation. Androgenesis induction was associated with seven QTLs (LOD between 2.0 and 5.8) detected on chromosomes 5A, 4R, 5R and 7R, all of them confirmed by K-W test as regions containing the markers significantly linked to the studied trait. What is more, K-W test revealed additional markers on chromosomes: 5A, 2BL, 7B and 5R. Both total and green regeneration ability were controlled by genes localized on chromosome 4A. Some of the QTLs that affected final androgenesis efficiency were identical with those associated with androgenic embryo induction efficiency, suggesting that the observed correlation may be either due to tight linkage or to pleiotropy. Key message Five regions of the triticale genome were indicated as revealing significant marker/trait association. Markers located in these regions are potentially useful for triticale breeding through marker-assisted selection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Breeding
  • Chromosome Mapping / methods*
  • Chromosomes, Plant / genetics*
  • Edible Grain / embryology
  • Edible Grain / genetics*
  • Flowers / embryology
  • Flowers / genetics*
  • Genes, Plant / genetics
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Markers / genetics
  • Genome, Plant / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Germ Cells, Plant / physiology
  • Lod Score
  • Phenotype
  • Quantitative Trait Loci / genetics*
  • Regeneration
  • Software
  • Tissue Culture Techniques


  • Genetic Markers