Estimates of the annual direct medical costs of the prevention and treatment of disease associated with human papillomavirus in the United States

Vaccine. 2012 Sep 14;30(42):6016-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.056. Epub 2012 Aug 4.


Estimates of the direct medical costs attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) can help to quantify the economic burden of HPV and to illustrate the potential benefits of HPV vaccination. The purpose of this report was to update the estimated annual direct medical costs of the prevention and treatment of HPV-associated disease in the United States, for all HPV types. We included the costs of cervical cancer screening and follow-up and the treatment costs of the following HPV-associated health outcomes: cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers (anal, vaginal, vulvar and penile), oropharyngeal cancer, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). We obtained updated incidence and cost estimates from the literature. The overall annual direct medical cost burden of preventing and treating HPV-associated disease was estimated to be $8.0 billion (2010 U.S. dollars). Of this total cost, about $6.6 billion (82.3%) was for routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up, $1.0 billion (12.0%) was for cancer (including $0.4 billion for cervical cancer and $0.3 billion for oropharyngeal cancer), $0.3 billion (3.6%) was for genital warts, and $0.2 billion (2.1%) was for RRP.

MeSH terms

  • Condylomata Acuminata / economics
  • Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology
  • Condylomata Acuminata / prevention & control
  • Cost of Illness*
  • Early Detection of Cancer / economics
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / economics
  • Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Infections / economics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / economics
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / prevention & control
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / economics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis